INTRODUCTIONThe affection of admonition articulacy is absolute aural definitions acclimated to call it. Traditionally librarians accept accustomed ‘library induction’ or ‘library abilities training’ in a bound role. Library users charge to apperceive breadth the archive is, what the casework are, and a lot of chiefly breadth the enquiry board is. This is not to abate the bulk of acceptable library induction, but libraries and admonition are aswell changing. The accouterment of admonition through a library in a acceptable anatomy has gone through abolitionist alterations. Already in a lot of library and admonition organisations staffs are adjusting their casework with the accouterment of new media and admission to admonition accouterment aural these organisations. Thus librarians are talking about amusing inclusion, opportunity, life-long learning, admonition association and cocky development.A deluge of definitions for admonition articulacy abound in books, account affidavit and the web. Some of these definitions centre on the activities of admonition articulacy i.e. anecdotic the abilities bare for acknowledged association functioning. Added definitions are based on the angle of an admonition association getting i.e. aggravating to outline the abstraction of admonition literacy. Deriving accordingly a alone analogue is a circuitous activity of accession calm a set of account as to what adeptness be, should be, or may be advised a allotment of admonition literacy. For archetype Weber and Johnson (2002) authentic admonition articulacy as the acceptance of adapted admonition behaviour to obtain, through whatever admission or medium, admonition able-bodied adapted to admonition needs, calm with analytical acquaintance of the accent of astute and ethical use of admonition in society. The American Library Association (2003) authentic admonition articulacy as a set of abilities bare to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information. While CLIP (2004) authentic admonition articulacy as alive if and why one needs information, breadth to acquisition it, and how to evaluate, use and acquaint it in an ethical manner. Succinctly these definitions betoken that admonition articulacy requires not alone adeptness but aswell abilities in:• recognising if admonition is needed;• assets available• analysis information;• evaluating information;• application information;• belief and albatross of use of information;• how to acquaint or allotment information;• how to administer informationGiven accordingly the array of definitions and adumbrated account admonition articulacy is a array of abilities that an alone can administer to cope with, and to yield advantage of the aberrant bulk of admonition which surrounds us in our circadian activity and work.STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEMSierra Leone’s accepted educational arrangement is composed of six years of bookish primary education, three years of Junior Accessory Academy (JSS), three years Chief Accessory Academy (SSS) and four years of tertiary education-6-3-3-4. (The Professor Gbamanja Commission’s Abode of 2010 recommended an added year for SSS to become 6-3-4-4). The official age for primary academy pupils is amid six and eleven years. All pupils at the end of chic six are adapted to yield and canyon the Civic Primary Academy Examinations advised by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) to accredit them advance to the accessory academy disconnected into Junior Accessory School(JSS) and Chief Accessory Academy (SSS). Each allotment has a final examination: the Basal Apprenticeship Certificate Examinations (BECE) for the JSS, and the West African Chief Accessory Academy Certificate Examinations (WASSCE) for SSS, both conducted by WAEC. Acknowledged candidates of WASSCE are accepted to tertiary institutions based on a amount of accommodation anesthetized (GoSL,1995)The chic of primary schools emphasizes admonition adequacy and the adeptness to accept and dispense numbers. At the JSS level, the chic is accepted and comprehensive, encompassing the accomplished ambit of knowledge, attitudes and abilities in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The amount accommodation of English, Mathematics, Science and Amusing studies are compulsatory for all pupils. At the SSS level, the chic is bent by its attributes (general or specialist), or its accurate objectives. Pupils are offered a set of amount (compulsory) accommodation with alternative accommodation based on their specialization. Teaching is guided by the teaching syllabuses and afflicted by the alien examinations that pupils are adapted to yield at the 3/ 4-year course. English is the accent of apprenticeship (GoSL,1995).The countries two universities, three polytechnics, and two abecedary training colleges are amenable for the training of agents in Sierra Leone. The Universities Act of 2004 provides for clandestine universities so that these institutions too could admonition in the training of teachers. Programs ambit from the Abecedary Certificate offered by the abecedary training colleges to the Masters in Apprenticeship offered by universities. Pre-service acceptance of agents is the albatross of the Civic Council for Technical, Vocational and Added Bookish Awards (NCTVA). There is aswell an In-service Abecedary Training affairs (Distance Apprenticeship Program) conducted for agents in allotment to abate the amount of green and amateur agents abnormally in the rural areas.LITERACY IN SIERRA LEONEIn Sierra Leone as it is in a lot of locations of the developing apple articulacy involves one’s adeptness to read, abode and numeracy. It is the adeptness to activity finer in activity contexts. A association getting is associated with the ascendancy of abilities and adeptness and how these could be activated aural his bounded environment. For instance a association getting is believed to be able to administer actinic fertilizer to his crops, ample in a loans form, actuate able dosage of medicine, account banknote agriculture amount and profits, accumulate admonition from a newspaper, accomplish out a coffer drop blooper and compassionate instructions and basal animal rights.Literacy is at the affection of the country’s development goals and animal rights (World Bank, 2007). Wherever practised articulacy activities are allotment of civic and all-embracing strategies for bigger education, animal development and well-being. According to the 2013 United Nations Animal Development Index Sierra Leone has a articulacy amount of 34 %.Implicitly Sierra Leone is an articulate society. And articulate societies await heavily on anamnesis to abode their values, laws, history, music, and adeptness admitting the accounting chat allows absolute possibilities for chiral and accordingly of alive accord in communication. These possibilities are what accomplish the ambition of articulacy acute in society.
In bookish chat articulacy hinges on the printed word. A lot of pupils are formally alien to book if they appointment schoolbook. Academy agents in Sierra Leone abide to use textbooks in their teaching activities to back agreeable breadth admonition to pupils. It is no bucking that pupils neither maximise their acquirements abeyant nor apprehend at levels all-important for compassionate the blazon of abstracts agents would like them to use. Thus the achievement of pupils at centralized and accessible examinations is disappointing. Further pupils’ connected queries in the library authenticate that they do not alone abridgement basal acquaintance of assets accessible in their altered academy libraries but aswell do not accept basal rudiments of how to antecedent admonition and abstracts from these institutions. What is added awkward is that pupils do not use adapted account abilities and abstraction strategies in learning. There is a absence of account adeptness in schools and this bearings cuts beyond the bolt of society. In appearance of the accepted abutment the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) to authorize articulacy standards in academy this bearings has accepted arresting as agents do not apperceive how to bigger admonition pupils to accomplish this goal. Thus they attending up to the academy librarians to play a added proactive role.LITERACY DEMANDS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILSIn accustomed situations academy pupils are accepted to be able to analyze and seek admonition they need. Accouterment a array of account and autograph adventures application assorted abstracts in the academy library can admonition advance pupils’ articulacy adeptness (Roe, Stoodt-Hill and Burns, 2004). The admission of appraisal in schools in Sierra Leone includes chic exercises, tests, accounting and applied assignments, as able-bodied as accounting examinations to see pupils through to their next levels. These pupils, for example, charge to apprehend agreeable books and added abstracts in academy for homework. Pupils accept even added articulacy needs in their activities alfresco school. They charge to apprehend signs begin in their communities, job applications, alley maps and signs, labels on aliment and medicine, newspapers, accessible notices, coffer statements, bills and abounding added anatomic materials. Failure to apprehend and accept these abstracts can aftereffect in their committing cartage violations, accepting abhorrent reactions to aliment or medicine, acceptable lost, accident application opportunities and missing adorable programs. Equally so pupils charge to abode to their ancestors and admired ones, instructions to humans who are accomplishing things for them, addendum to themselves about tasks to be completed, buzz belletrist for colleagues and abounding added items. Mistakes in these activities can accept abrogating furnishings on them. Acceptable articulacy abilities are abnormally important to pupils who plan to accompany college apprenticeship studies. The job bazaar in the country calls for pupils to be literate. For instance a lot of jobs advertised these canicule crave humans who accept completed their JSS. The actuality is that workers charge to be able to accept clear aids, categorized admonition and brush and browse to locate information. Aswell the attributes of account in the abode about involves analysis admonition for actual use and answer admonition for botheration solving. The account and autograph of a array of abstracts like memos, manuals, letters, letters and instructions are all-important articulacy abilities in the workplace.SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN SIERRA LEONESchool libraries in Sierra Leone are perceived as basal aspect of the county’s educational system. These institutions accompany calm four above apparatus of the academy community: the materials, pupils, abecedary and library staff. The capital purpose for the enactment of these institutions in schools is to accompaniment the teaching/learning process, if not to abutment the curriculum. This purpose is accomplished in two ways: by accouterment pupils with the agency of award whatever admonition they need; and by developing in pupils the addiction of application books both for admonition and for pleasure. Pupils charge admonition to admonition them with the accommodation they apprentice in school. The textbooks they use and the addendum they yield in chic can be an accomplished foundation. They may aswell be acceptable for afterlight purposes. But these could not be abundant to accredit pupils to abode acceptable essays of their own or to backpack out accumulation projects. Academy libraries again are accepted to accompaniment this accomplishment and accordingly are perceived as acquirements centres.Pupils charge admonition on accommodation not accomplished in school. Academy libraries are looked aloft as places pupils acquisition admonition to admonition them in their academy studies and claimed development. Through these institutions pupils’ addiction of application libraries for life-long apprenticeship is not alone developed but aswell academy libraries could be acclimated to advance pupils’ account skills. In the academy association both pupils and agents use academy libraries for leisure and recreational purpose and for career advancement. The adeptness of association is aswell transmitted through use of academy libraries. Because of the important role academy libraries play in the country’s educational arrangement they are organised in such way that pupils as able-bodied as agents can await aloft them for abutment in the teaching/learning process. A lot of of these institutions are managed by either a full-time agents generally supervised by a chief teacher. Staffs use assorted methods to advance their use including user education.JUSTIFYING THE LIBRARIAN’S INVOLVEMENT IN PROMOTING LITERACY IN SCHOOLA pre-requisite for the development of free pupils through adjustable resource-based acquirements approaches is that pupils adept a set of abilities which gradually accredit them to yield ascendancy of their own learning. Accepted accent in teaching in schools in Sierra Leone has confused from “teacher-centred” to “pupil-centred” admission thereby accurate pupils to “learn how to learn” for themselves so that the affiliation of activity abilities into the architecture of the academy chic becomes acute (GoSL,1995). It is in this breadth of “learning” or “information literacy” abilities that one can a lot of acutely see the inter-relationship amid the academy chic and the academy library. For pupils to become absolute users of admonition and for this to activity it is basal that they are accustomed the abilities to apprentice how to acquisition information, how to baddest what is relevant, and how to use it in the best way accessible for their own accurate needs and yield albatross for their own learning. As admonition literate, pupils will be able to administer admonition skilfully and calmly in a array of contexts. They will be able of belief admonition anxiously and wisely to actuate its superior (Marcum2002). Pupils do recognise that accepting acceptable admonition is axial to affair the befalling and challenges of circadian living. They are aswell acquainted of the accent of how researching beyond a array of sources and formats to locate the best admonition to accommodated accurate needs.Literacy activities in schools in Sierra Leone are the albatross of agreeable breadth teachers, account consultants and academy librarians. Of these the role of the academy librarian is paramount. As specialist the academy librarian is accepted to accommodate abetment to pupils and agents akin by analysis abstracts in altered subjects, and at altered account levels by accurate accessible abstracts that can be acclimated for activity and accomplishments reading. The academy librarian is aswell accepted to accommodate pupils with instructions in analysis strategies accompanying to the library such as accomplishing online searches and bribery through printed advertence materials. The librarian is accepted to affectation printed abstracts aural his purview, abode specialised bibliographies and lists of addresses on specific accommodation at the appeal of teachers. He should be able to accommodate pupils with absolute abetment in award and application adapted materials; recreational account can be fostered by the librarian’s book talks or adorable book displays on high-interest accommodation like HIV/AIDS, adolescent abuse, adolescent rights, animal rights and abjection alleviation. In appearance of this the axiological qualities accepted of the acceptable academy librarian cover adeptness of his accumulating and how to admission it; adeptness to accept the needs of his users added so those of pupils; adeptness to acquaint with pupils and developed users; and adeptness of admonition abilities and how to use information.ROLE OF THE SCHOOL LIBRARIANPupils’ success in academy depends to a ample admeasurement aloft their adeptness to access, appraise and use information. Accouterment admission to admonition and assets is a abiding albatross of the academy librarian. The academy librarian should accommodate the administering and adeptness all-important to ensure that the library becomes basal in the advisory affairs of the school. In academy the librarian is the admonition specialist, abecedary and advisory consultant. He is the interface amenable for allegorical pupils and agents through the circuitous admonition assets housed in his library (Lenox and Walker, 1993). He is looked up to abetment and adviser abundant users in gluttonous to use and accept the assets and casework of the library. In this account the academy librarian should brainwash in these users such abilities as chiral and online analytic of information; use of equipment; developing analytical abilities for the organization, appraisal and use of admonition and account as basal allotment of the chic (Lonsdale, 2003). The academy librarian should be acquainted of the ambit of accessible admonition retrieval systems, analyze that a lot of acceptable to the needs of pupils and accommodate adeptness in allowance them become knowledgeable, if not comfortable, in their use. Since no library is arrogant the academy librarian can arrangement with admonition agencies, lending/renting abstracts and/or application cyberbanking devises to abode admonition (Tilke, 1998; 2002).As admonition specialist the academy librarian should be able to allotment his adeptness with those who may ambition to apperceive what admonition sources and/or acquirements abstracts are accessible to abutment a affairs of work. Such appointment should be offered to the accomplished academy through the chic development board or to alone accountable teachers. The academy librarian should yield the advance in developing pupils’ admonition articulacy abilities by getting complex with the academy chic planning and accouterment a abject of assets to accommodated its needs. He should be acquainted of key educational initiatives and their appulse in teaching and learning; he should be accustomed with teaching methods and acquirements styles in school; over all he should advance an overview of admonition articulacy programmes aural the academy (Herring, 1996; Kuhlthau, 2004).Kuhlthau (2004) opined that admonition gluttonous is a primary activity of activity and that pupils seek admonition to deepen and augment their compassionate of the apple about them. If therefore, admonition in academy libraries is placed in a beyond ambience of learning, pupils’ angle becomes an capital basal in admonition provision. The academy librarian should ensure that skills, adeptness and attitude apropos admonition access, use and communication, are basal allotment of the academy curriculum. Admonition abilities are acute in the life-long acquirements activity of pupils. As abbreviate appellation cold the academy librarian should accommodate a agency of accomplishing acquirements objectives aural the curriculum; as continued appellation admonition abilities accept a absolute appulse on alone pupils’ adeptness to accord finer with a alteration environment. Accordingly the academy librarian should plan in concert with agents and administrators to ascertain the ambit and arrangement of the admonition accordant to the academy chic and ensure its affiliation throughout the advisory programs (Tilke, 2002; Birks and Hunt, 2003). Pupils should be encouraged to realise their abeyant as abreast citizens who alarmingly anticipate and break problems. In appearance of the accord amid the chic and academy library, the librarian should serve on the chic board ensuring that admonition admission abilities are congenital into accountable areas. The academy librarian’s captivation in the chic development will admittance him to accommodate admonition on the use of a array of advisory strategies such as acquirements centres and analytic software, able in communicating agreeable to pupils (Herring, 1996; Birks and Hunt, 2003).Literacy could be actively developed as pupils charge admission to specific resources, authenticate compassionate of their functionality and able analytic skills. In this attention pupils should be accustomed basal apprenticeship to the library, its accessories and casework and consecutive use. Interactive teaching methods aimed at admonition articulacy apprenticeship should be conducted for the account of pupils. Teaching methods could cover an outline of a array of aides like quizzes and worksheets of differing complication akin to actively appoint pupils in acquirements library abilities and convalescent their admonition literacy. Classes should be disconnected into baby groups so that pupils could accept hands-on-experience application library resources. Breadth Internet casework are accessible in the library online tutorials should be provided. Post affair aftereffect activity will ensure that pupils accept hands-on-experience application library resources. Teaching methods should be consistently evaluated to analyze flaws and advance on them.
Further the academy librarian should authenticate alertness to abutment and bulk pupils in their use of the library through: accouterment of readers’ guides; brochures; book marks; library handbooks/guides; computerization of collection; accessible allegorical throughout the library; and approved captivation of book exhibitions and book fairs. Since there are association radio stations in the country the academy librarian could buy air time to abode library activities, assets and services. He can aswell acquaint to pupils through amend newspapers. Pupils could be encouraged to accord online writing on library development, book reviews and admonition about aperture times and services. The academy librarian could admonition pupils to anatomy book and account clubs, adapt book weeks and book talks application visiting speakers and acclaimed writers to abode pupils. Classes could aswell be accustomed to appointment the library to facilitate use. Added chiefly the academy librarian should accommodate abetment to pupils in the use of technology to admission admonition alfresco the library. He should action pupils opportunities accompanying to new technology, use and assembly of assorted media formats, and laws and polices apropos information. In adjustment to body a accordant ability abject for the academy association the librarian should consistently backpack out needs assessment, comparing alteration demands to accessible resources.The Internet is a basal antecedent for announcement articulacy in the academy library. The academy librarian should ensure that the library has a website that will serve as adviser to accordant and accurate sources and as a apparatus for acquirements whereby pupils and agents are accustomed befalling to allotment account and solutions (Herring, 2003). Through the Internet pupils can browse the library website to apprentice how to seek and advance admonition articulacy skills. In adjustment for pupils to tap abreast sources from the Net the academy librarian should consistently amend the home page, say on a circadian basis, if necessary. Simultaneously the academy librarian should account to pupils and agents sheets/guides to abetment them in accustomed out their own absolute researches. He should accord hands-on-experience training to users to allotment account with others through the accumulation of “lunch time” or “after academy abutment groups”. Such activities could admonition pupils to advance account and analytic admonition for a chic affair and assignment.Even the area of the library has an appulse in announcement articulacy in school. The library should be centrally located, abutting to the best amount of teaching areas. It should be able to bench at atomic ten per cent of academy pupils at any accustomed time, accepting a advanced ambit of assets basal for teaching and acquirements programs offered in school. The library should be characterised by acceptable signage for the account of adherent and abecedary users with abreast displays to enhance the articulacy abilities of pupils and aesthetic their bookish curiosity.CONCLUSIONIndeed the advance of articulacy should be basal in the academy chic and that the librarian should be able to play a arch role to ensure that the skills, adeptness and attitudes accompanying to admonition admission are inculcated in pupils and agents akin as ascendant users of the academy library. But the accomplishment of this ambition is abased on a admiring academy administration, consistently accommodating and accessible to abetment the library and its programs financially. To accomplish the librarian added able he should be accustomed accommodation architecture to affair the challenges of alteration times.REFERENCESAmerican Library Association (2003). ‘Introduction to admonition literacy.’Birks, J. & Hunt, F. (2003). Hands-on admonition articulacy activities. London: Neal-Schumann.CLIP (2004).’Information Literacy: definition.’GoSL (2010). Abode of the Professor Gbamanja Commission of Inquiry into the Poor Achievement of Pupils in the 2008 BECE and WASSCE Examinations (Unpublished).___________(1995). New Apprenticeship action for Sierra Leone. Freetown: Department of Education.Herring, James E. (1996). Teaching admonition abilities in schools. London: Library Association Publishing.__________________ (2003).The Internet and admonition skills: a adviser for agents and librarians. London: Facet Publishing.Kahlthau, C. C. (2004). Gluttonous meaning: a activity admission to library and admonition services. 2nd. ed. London: Libraries Unlimited.Lenox, M. F. & Walker, M. L.(1993). ‘Information Articulacy in the apprenticeship process.’ The Educational Forum, 52 (2): 312-324.Lonsdale, Michael (2003). Appulse of academy libraries on apprentice achievement: a analysis of research. Camberwell: Australian Council of Educational Research.Marcum, J. W. (2002). ‘ Rethinking Admonition Literacy,’ Library Quarterly, 72:1-26.Roe, Betty D., Stoodt-Hill & Burns, Paul C. (2004).Secondary Academy Articulacy instruction: the agreeable areas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Tilke, A. (1998). On-the-job sourcebook for academy librarians. London: Library Association._________ (2002). Managing your academy library and admonition service: a applied handbook. London: Facet Publishing.Weber, S. & Johnston, B. ( 2002). ‘Assessment in the Admonition Association University.’ Conference: Workshop 1st All-embracing Conference on IT and Admonition Literacy, 20th- 22nd. \March 2002, Glasgow, Scotland. Parallel Affair 3, Thursday 21st March,2002.World Coffer (2007). Apprenticeship in Sierra Leone; present challenges, approaching opportunities. Washington,DC: Apple Bank.